Philosophy 1140 Empiricism. Quiz 7. 04.03.00 Name_____________________
The two types of mental contents identified by Hume are:
Ideas and thoughts
Impressions and Ideas of Sense.
Ideas and Impressions
Ideas of Sense and Ideas of Reflexion
Ideas and thoughts means the same thing for Hume, so a is out. Hume doesn't use the expression 'idas of sense', but if he did, it would mean the same as an impression, and so b is out. Similar reasons eliminate d. c is clearly correct, given the text at teh beginning of part II.
The point of the missing shade of blue example is to:
a. Provide support for Hume's account of the relation between impressions and ideas.
b. Provide a counter-example to his account of the relation between impressions and ideas.
c. Provide a counter-example to Berkeley's theory of passive ideas.
d. Provide an example of knowledge by relations of Ideas.
The example is brought up by Hume as a potential problem for his own account, as it appears to be a case where we can have a simple idea with no corresponding impression.
What does Hume identify as the mechanisms by which Ideas are related?
c. Cause and Effect.
d. All of the above.
He specifically mentions all three, and gives examples of all three, in the text. Obvious.
What are the two types of knowledge that Hume claims we have?
Knowledge of Cause and Effect, and relations of Ideas.
Knowledge of matters of fact, and relations of ideas.
Knowledge of matters of fact, and of Cause and Effect.
None of the above.
Cause and effect is one type of knowledge of matters of fact. IN any case, b is correct, as is abvious from the text.
Concerning knowledge about the world, Hume claims that almost all of it is based on
b. Cause and Effect.
c. Relations of Ideas.
d. Both b and c.
We discussed this ad nauseam in class. Even before the quiz.
What is the relation between induction and the law of Cause and Effect?
b. Cause and Effect is a special case of Induction.
c. Induction is a special case of Cause and Effect.
d. No relation, as Induction is a matter of relations of ideas.
Again, we discussed this in class, even before the quiz.
What is the relation between Hume's distinction between ideas and impressions, and Locke's distinction between Ideas of Sense and Ideas of reflexion?
a. No relation.
b. Same thing.
c. Impressions are the same as Ideas of Sensation.
d. Both b and c.
It is a different distinction entirely, as discussed in class.
What is Hume's major argument against the notion that our belief in the law of cause and effect is justified?
All reasoning concerning the relations of ideas tells us nothing about the world.
We know that the law of cause and effect is often violated.
All knowledge is either of matters of fact, or of relations of ideas.
The only possible justification is circular -- it depends on the law of cause and effect.
Hume does claim a, but not as part of anything to do with this point directly. b is irrelevant. He also claims c, but again, it is not immediately relevant to this issue of the question. d is clearly correct, as Hume argues that knowledge of the world depends on cause and effect, while knowledge of cause and effect depends on knowldge of the world, and hence on knowledge of cause and effect.
Which best captures the essence of inductive inference?
a. All observed As have had feature B, and so all unobserved As have feature B.
b. The concept of an A includes the concept of feature B, therefore all As have feature B.
c. Having B is a necessary condition for being an A, therefore all As have feature B.
d. Either b or c (since they are equivalent)
b and c are more or less equivalent, they both claim that there is a sort of conceptual connection bewteen a and b. BUT, if this were so, then the connection would be analytic -- a relation of ideas -- and not a matter of fact. This rules b, c, andd d out as answers. In any case, from our discussion in class, a should have been obvious.
What is it that Hume says makes us believe in cause& effect, and is the reason we believe in all the matters of fact that we do believe in?
c. Cause and Effect.
d. Both a and b.
This is the whole point of section V.